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Kyrgyzstan (/ˈkɜrɡɪstɑːn/ KUR-gi-stahn, /kɜrɡɪˈstɑːn/, or /ˈkɪərɡɪstɑːn/; Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан [qɯrʁɯzstɑ́n]; Russian: Кыргызстан [kᵻrɡᵻsˈtan]), officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the world’s independent Turkic states. Kyrgyzstan is landlocked (farther from an ocean than any other country) and mountainous (Peak Jengish Chokusu: 7,439 m). It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and People’s Republic of China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek, with approximately 900,000 inhabitants (as of 2005).
Kyrgyzstan has significant deposits of metals including gold and rare earth metals. Due to the country’s predominantly mountainous terrain, less than 8% of the land is cultivated, and this is concentrated in the northern lowlands and the fringes of the Fergana Valley.